Updated: Aug 16, 2020
without ~ing; before (~ing); with no ~; if ~do not; when ~ do not
You cannot talk about the South America continent without some knowledge of the Inca Empire.
Our team won the championship before (lit., without waiting for) the final game on the final day.
You should not call others to account when you have not performed your own duties.
I put all the examples along with the meaning into flashcards to study just in case you forget. (I suggest downloading the app version for brainscape) With this you can even study on your phone!
Feel free to use this flash card deck I update regularly.
This grammar is really for intermediate-advanced learners. If you are looking to know where to start in Japanese and building a good foundation check out this blog post it.
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