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JLPT Taisaku 86#ずして

Updated: Aug 16

ずして


Meaning:


without ~ing; before (~ing); with no ~; if ~do not; when ~ do not


Examples:

インカ帝国を知らずして南米大陸を語ることはできない。

You cannot talk about the South America continent without some knowledge of the Inca Empire.


我々のチームは最終日の最終戦を待たずして優勝が決定した。

Our team won the championship before (lit., without waiting for) the final game on the final day.


自分の義務を果たさずして人の責任を問うべきではない。

You should not call others to account when you have not performed your own duties.


I put all the examples along with the meaning into flashcards to study just in case you forget. (I suggest downloading the app version for brainscape) With this you can even study on your phone!


Feel free to use this flash card deck I update regularly.

https://www.brainscape.com/p/1QM6Q-LH-7XTJA

This grammar is really for intermediate-advanced learners. If you are looking to know where to start in Japanese and building a good foundation check out this blog post it.

https://www.myvaphotography.com/post/how-to-learn-japanese-effectively-and-avoid-these-mistakes-i-made

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https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNIsPTTf0ennaCqGNqwcCXg?view_as=subscriber

I make videos in English/Japanese I'd love to help out on your language journey!

Thanks for reading!

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